Footnotes are often used to explain text or to give a bibliographical source for a piece of text. If you are writing a research paper, you might want to know some footnote abbreviations. Following are lists of abbreviations and their explanations.
Common Footnote Abbreviations
Many footnote abbreviations have a Latin origin and are still used today. You will find these abbreviations in bibliographies and references pages.
Here is a list of the most common footnote abbreviations:
- anon. - anonymous
- ante. - before
- ca. or c. (circa) - around a given date
- cf. - confer
- ch. or chs. - chapter or chapters
- ed. or eds. - edition, edited by, or editors
- et al. - and others
- et seq. - and the following
- Ibid. or ibidem - "in the same place"
- j. or ff. - following page or pages
- l. or ll. - line or lines
- loc. cit. or loco citato - in the place cited
- ms, mss - manuscript or manuscripts
- n.d. - no date
- n. p. - no place of publication
- op. cit. or opere citato - in the work cited
- p. or pp. - page or pages
- passim - all over, here and there
- q.v. or quod vide - go to another place
- rev. - revised
- trans. or tr. - translated
- v. inf. or vide infra - see below
- v. sup or vide supra - see above
- vol. or vols. - volume or volumes
The format used for the footnote abbreviation depends on the style selected for the document. APA, the style provided by the American Psychological Association, is a commonly-used style for social science research papers; however, the preferred format may be different based on the instutution or company.